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Cara kerja sebuah kamera

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Sahabat BP, untuk lebih mengenal apa itu sebuah kamera, kami mengajak sahabat penghobi photography untuk lebih jauh mengenal kamera melalui cara kerjanya.
seperti telah diuraikan pada artikel sebelumnya mengenai Sejarah Kamera dan Photography. bahwa kamera adalah sebuah kotak dengan ruangan hitam kedap cahaya/lightproof yang diberi lubang kecil pada salah satu dindingnya. Dan melalui lubang kecil tersebutlah object gambar dengan perantaraan induksi cahaya direfleksikan ke dinding seberangnya dalam posisi yang terbalik.
Begitulah proses dasar bekerjanya sebuah kamera dalam menangkap/mengambil object gambar.

Kini suatu object gambar/photo dapat diabadikan untuk selama-lamanya oleh sebuah kamera dalam satuan detik saja. Hal tersebut dimungkinkan karena pengembangan/inovasi system kerja kamera yang tiada henti hingga saat ini. Ditambah lagi dengan penemuan-penemuan system baru pada kamera digital yang sangat fantastis yang membuat para photographer menjadi lebih mudah mengoperasikan sebuah kamera jenis apapun.

Kamera dan seni photography mungkin salah satu penemuan yang paling dihormati di dunia saat ini, meskipun ide pengambilan gambar/photo bukan merupakan hal yang baru lagi. Dengan munculnya kamera film (analog) dan kamera digital, pada akhirnya kamera-pun dapat mengubah cara pandang kita tentang dunia.
 
Bagaimana sebuah kamera dapat mengabadikan dan menangkap semua moment indah kita?, berikut ini kami uraikan secara sederhana mengenai cara kerjanya.
 
Fungsi dasar dan cara kerja sebuah kamera.
Kamera berasal dari kata “Chamber” yang berarti “ruang” adalah merupakan sebuah kotak kedap cahaya/lightproof yang didalamnya mengandung tiga elemen yaitu bahan kimia, mekanik (film) dan elemen optik atau lensa.
how camera works-clicked stateFungsi dasar sebuah kamera mulai dari ditemukannya kamera Obscura (kotak hitam) hingga kamera digital canggih saat ini, masih tetap sama.
Prinsip kerja kamera pada dasarnya mirip dengan prinsip kerja mata kita. Cara kerja dari sebuah kamera didasarkan pada dasar-dasar refleksi. Seperti kita ketahui gerakan cahaya melalui berbagai media memiliki kecepatan yang berbeda. Kecepatan cahaya akan lebih bervariasi ketika begerak melalui media udara daripada saat bergerak melalui media kaca. Ketika Anda membidikan kamera dan fokus pada suatu object gambar, maka cahaya akan memantulkan object tersebut melalui lensa. Hal ini akan memperlambat kecepatan cahaya dan memungkinkan cahaya membelok saat memasuki lensa, sehingga cahaya akan menyimpang dari sumbernya, kemudian lensa akan menerima cahaya dan dikumpulkan di satu titik di mana pada akhirnya gambar dapat dibentuk pada permukaan film yang merupakan bahan peka cahaya dalam merekam gambar.
Dan ketika film diolah dengan bahan kimia tertentu object gambar-pun dapat segera terlihat dalam format negatif.
 
feny281Berdasarkan struktur dasar tersebut diatas maka kamera analog/manual memungkinkan memiliki kontrol aperture, diafragma yang mengatur jumlah cahaya yang masuk ke lensa dan shutter yang merupakan pintu masuknyacahaya sebelum sampai ke film/sensor cahaya untuk disimpan. Selain itu, fungsi shutter juga untuk mengekspos film/sensor cahaya agar jumlah cahaya yang masuk tetap/konsisten. Jadi lamanya waktu shutter terbuka menentukan jumlah/banyaknya cahaya yang mencapai permukaan film/sensor cahaya. Untuk mengontrol kualitas gambar dan efek tertentu, seperti gambar yang kabur/blur, seorang photographer dapat pengaturan lamanya shutter/kecepatan rana terbuka.
 
how-digital-cameras-workNah sahabat, sekarang bagaimana dengan cara kerjanya Kamera Digital?.
Kamera digital yang kompak dan ramping dengan kualitas gambar yang superior (pernah diperdebatkan pada Forum I love my Pentax manual), telah merevolusi industri photography. Hampir semua permasalahan operasi pada kamera manual 35mm dapat diatasi oleh kamera digital.
Berikut mari kita lihat cara kerja dasar dari kamera digital dan apa perbedaannya dengan kamera analog/manual?
Pada dasarnya cara kerja dan komponen utama dari kamera digital dan kamera analog/manual adalah sama. Perbedaan yang mencolok adalah pada media penyimpan hasil gambar dimana pada kamera analog menggunakan film celulosa, sedangkan pada kamera digital menggunakan sebuah komponen yang bernama chip atau biasa disebut dengan CCD (Change Coupled Device) ataupun CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxyde Semiconductor.
Pada kamera digital object gambar dalam bentuk analog kemudian dikonversikan ke bentuk/format digital yang selanjutnya setelah mengalami proses filtering dan lain-lain, object gambar kemudian disimpan sementara pada buffer memory kamera dan pada akhirnya disimpan tetap pada chip memory.
Sebuah chip memory mengandung jutaan titik sensor cahaya bersusun/array vertikal dan horizontal. Titik-titik sensor cahaya tersebut atau biasa disebut dengan pixel, akhirnya membentuk sebuah susunan dimensi gambar yang disebut resolusi dengan satuan pixel. Misalnya resolusi 3200 X 1200 pixel (3,84 megapixels).
Besarnya resolusi yang digunakan untuk sebuah object gambar/photo dapat diatur oleh photographer sesuai dengan yang diinginkan.
Kamera digital juga memiliki seperangkat filter yang akan mengkoreksi keseimbangan warna, putih dan aliasing. Mampu menyimpan hasil gambar dengan jumlah yang besar/banyak. Memiliki pengaturan pengambilan gambar secara otomatis maupun manual. Memiliki kamera bidik/viewfinder berbentuk display LCD. Dapat melakukan pengambilan gambar format video dan tentunya dapat berhubungan langsung dengan komputer anda melalui perangkat komunikasi yang tersedia. Dan masih banyak lagi kemampuan-kemampuan lainnya.
 
cameraJadi pada dasarnya cara kerja kamera apapun tetap sama. Dimulai dengan sistem lensa untuk mendapatkan gambar, sensor cahaya-sensitif untuk merekam gambar, dan sistem mekanis untuk mengatur pencahayaan gambar.

Anda dapat melihat video lainnya tentang cara kerja kamera di sini.
 
Demikian semoga dapat bermanfaat.

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      • yep, i really like photography actually but i dont have any DSLR camera yet to grab my hobby :D:(i think its expensive enough for me cause im a student now ahihihihi wish me luck !

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        • Are you absolutely sure love photography dear sist..!?, because photography does not only to have a DSLR camera.
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    • Iya kerjanya mirip dengan kerja mata kita dik Ish…
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  • saya ni pakai pun kurang tahu,ini pula cara kerjanya,thanks.

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    • Hello my friend Thomas. Tapi saya lihat hasil photo-photonya Thomas bagus-bagus, hampir semua saya suka :D

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  • sudah lama punya kamera baru thu cara kerjanya mas bro
    makasih atas infonnya mas brooo

    Reply
    • Avatar Image

      Admin

      Halo sahabatku mas Ronny, mudah-mudahan bisa bermanfaat mas bro, thanks kunjungan dan supportnya. salam sukses selalu mas :D

      Reply
  • Avatar Image

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    Reply
  • mantab infonya sobat,sebelum beli harus tau dulu nih

    Reply
    • Avatar Image

      Admin

      Ya Mas Rip, supaya makin mantap waktu kita membeli jadi ga kaget sama harganya yg kata orang selangit hehe… :DThanks kunjungan dan supportnya, sukses selalu kawan :)

      Reply
  • hai.. perasaan kemaren udah komen kok gak masuk ya :D
    jeli juga ya kamera.. sama dengan kamera ponsel ndak kakak ^^ .

    Reply
    • Avatar Image

      Admin

      Hai Tia…, mungkin komennya bukan disini hehe :)tak check abis ga ada tuh heuheu :D
      Prinsip dasar kerja kamera apapun sama Tia, yang membedakan biasanya alat-alat dukungnya seperti fiture dlsb.

      Tia…, kok cowok-cowok cakepnya ga di komen sih..!?, padahal waktu bikin post-nya, idenya inget Tia hehe :D

      Thanks ya Tia kunjungan dan komennya, sukses selalu sist :)

      Reply
  • kunjungan sore sobat

    Reply
  • wah benar2 lengkap deh ulasan tentang kamera salam kenal and succes selalu

    Reply
    • Avatar Image

      Admin

      Terima kasih sahabat Rohmad atas kunjungan dan apresiasinya. Salam kenal kembali dan sukses selalu sob. :)

      Reply
  • Mantab nih infonya, sangat bermanfaat..
    Dulu ketika SD saya pernah membuat kamera sederhana dari kardus odol :D
    Konsep kerjanya sama seperti ulasan di atas :)

    Reply
    • Avatar Image

      Admin

      Betul sob, saya pun pernah mengalami hal yg sama. Thanks kunjungan dan apresiasinya. Sukses selalu :)

      Reply
  • Avatar Image

    Admin

    @Mas-mas di http://www.brehoh.com, http://www.dodirosadi.com & http://www.odoygiant.com: Terima kasih banyak atas kunjungan dan apresiasinya. Salam sejahtera dan sukses selalu.

    Reply
  • terimakasih infonya. sangat bermanffaat dech!

    Reply
  • bagus bahasannya

    Reply
  • sangat bermanfaat terima kasih

    Reply
  • mas boby kenapa cbox teman teman ko pada gak bisa dibuka

    Reply
  • informasinya sangat membantu,,,, thanks

    Reply
    • Avatar Image

      Admin

      Halow sahabat sekampung..!, lama tak jumpa. Thx apresiasinya, semoga sehat dan sukses selalu.

      Reply
  • berkunjung dikala malam tiba

    Reply
  • Avatar Image

    Admin

    @Mas Rudy dan mas Cahyo: Terima kasih kunjungan dan komentar nya. Sukses selalu.

    Reply
  • kunjungan siang jelang turun hujan sobat

    Reply
  • ijin comment kawan,,selamat siang

    Reply
  • selamat sore kawan diluar mendung numpang teduh ya takut hujan hehehe……

    Reply
  • Lengkap banget ulasannya mas boby! Ada video nya pula..GREAT PRESENTATION! :)
    Yang saya tahu cara kerja kamera menyerupai cara kerja mata, itu sebabnya susunan kamera di-interpretasikan sedemikian rupa dengan susunan mata kita, akan tetapi pemrosesan gambarnya sangat berbeda. Hehe maaf kalau keliru.. :D

    Reply
    • Avatar Image

      Admin

      Sangat benar sob, pada waktu akan menjelaskan cara kerja mata, kami tidak punya potensi pengetahuan tentang hal itu hehe, jadi ya melalui video saja dan penjelasan teknis kamera secara umum. Thanks for completing the information and your great appreciation my friend. Always be succeed.

      Reply

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